נחלת בנימין

Nachlat Binyamin
Arts & Crafts Fair
Tel Aviv

History

In 1820 the first Jewish house was established in Jaffa. The young woman Yeshaya Ajiman of Constantinople built a Khan called "Shahar El Yahud", which was used by Jewish immigrants (the house was destroyed and its remains are in "HaGisga Park" in Jaffa). In the middle of the nineteenth century, the Jewish community, which had a Sephardic and Ashkenazi affiliation, numbered about 400 people. During this period, foreign settlers, Americans, followed by Templars, settled in the city. In 1892 the railway was inaugurated from Jaffa to Jerusalem, which increased the movement of pilgrims and tourists. During the First Aliya, the Jewish population in Jaffa grew. The overcrowding and economic difficulties led to the construction of Neve Tzedek (1887) and Neve Shalom (1891). Jaffa became the gateway to the center of the new Jewish settlement. Which housed the offices of Hovevei Zion and Geula, the central committees of the Workers 'Union, the Teachers' Union, a hospital, the boys 'and girls' schools, the Hebrew Gymnasium (founded in the Hebrew Gymnasium Alley, adjacent to Clock Square) The first Jewish bank, the Yefet Street, and the factories of the Second Aliyah, which led to an increase in the number of Jews in Jaffa, and the neighborhoods of Mahane Yosef, Kerem Hatemanim and Ohel Moshe (1905-1904) were established. In 1906, the Association for Home Builders was established, which changed its name to Ahuzat Bayit, and the neighborhood members purchased the land of Kerem Jabali, Israel has the first 60 houses in the neighborhood.
In 1911, after receiving a loan from the Jewish National Fund, a group of forty families from Jaffa and Neve Shalom established the initiative of Shlomo Levitzky, Meir Shulman and Haim Ridanit, who until now had lived under difficult rental conditions. , Were of lower economic status than those of the founders of Ahuzat Bayit, and most of them were craftsmen, officials and small merchants (some were members of Ahuzat Bayit, but for economic reasons could not join the treaty), the Nahalat Binyamin neighborhood 21.3 dunams, which remained in the eastern part of the "Kerem Jabali" land, northeast of the Gymnasium, and was sold to it in the spring of 1910 by "Ahuzat Bayit" Balance of "redemption" .scont Binyamin covers the streets of Nahalat Binyamin, Kalisher, Mohilever and adjacent streets. The source of the name, it is said, was debated: the founders of the association applied for a loan for their bodies. They said that if the JNF accepted their request, they would say that the neighborhood is named after Binyamin Ze'ev Herzl. If the Baron Rothschild answered yes, they would say that the neighborhood is named after Benjamin Edmond de Rothschild. In any case, they called the neighborhood Nahalat Binyamin. There were 35 lots in the neighborhood that were distributed in the lottery. The Nahalat Binyamin Association, as well as the Association of the Others, had a book of regulations that required the members to build the houses in "taste and beauty" and according to the standards of modern construction in Europe. The houses on the street were built according to the building regulations - on both sides of the main street and at regular intervals of 4 meters. The courtyards are surrounded by identical fences, made of wood and not stone, due to the economic situation of the founders of Nahalat Binyamin. The main street - Nahalat Binyamin Street (which was the longest in Tel Aviv, from Rothschild Boulevard in the south and ended north of Gruzenberg Street) was designed so that most of the houses in the neighborhood would be adjacent to it. The houses were mostly small, one-story buildings covered with tiled roofs, two rooms, a kitchen and a balcony, surrounded by gardens. Tziona Rabbo describes her parents' house in the street: "A line of cypresses led to the back entrance ... A number of steps in the bushes of night flowers led to a spacious terrace with a wooden banister ... Our kitchen was the height of luxury in those days ... A long corridor connected the dining room with the living room and other rooms ... Two erect poplars planted on either side of the porch ... Father, who so longed to build a house in our country, is available to the famous gardener Mr. Tantzman of Sarona to plan the garden around our house. " ("History of Tel Aviv, Yaakov Shavit). The dependence of the Nahalat Binyamin neighborhood in the Tel Aviv Water Institute and its lack of funds to build an independent infrastructure motivated it to unite with the older neighborhood. Nahalat Binyamin accepted the Tel Aviv regulations, undertook to participate in expenses and to pay proportionately (12.5%) for public property such as the water plant, the public park (the boulevard), the passage on the railroad tracks, and more. (Minutes from the meetings, and letters on the subject can be found in the Tel Aviv Municipal Archives in the City Hall). In September 1912 - when there were twenty-five houses - the territory of Binyamin joined Tel Aviv, and the growth of the neighborhood was accelerated. In the first years after World War I, the gardens in front of the houses were dismantled, shops and workshops were opened on the ground floors, and Nahalat Binyamin Street became the city's main commercial street. The street, long and straight, was suitable for ceremonies and events (such as the cricket walk, which attracted a large audience). But over time, changes took place in the street and it lost its uniformity and the size of the houses that originally ruled. Every house and its architect. Thus, an oriental style was incorporated here, under construction; there were domes, jagged columns, fortress-like; and, most important, decorations. Ceramics and jars, stone decorations and various building styles.

In 1911, after receiving a loan from the Jewish National Fund, a group of forty families from Jaffa and Neve Shalom established the initiative of Shlomo Levitzky, Meir Shulman and Haim Ridanit, who until now had lived under difficult rental conditions. , Were of lower economic status than those of the founders of Ahuzat Bayit, and most of them were craftsmen, officials and small merchants (some were members of Ahuzat Bayit, but for economic reasons could not join the treaty), the Nahalat Binyamin neighborhood 21.3 dunams, which remained in the eastern part of the "Kerem Jabali" land, northeast of the Gymnasium, and was sold to it in the spring of 1910 by "Ahuzat Bayit" Balance of "redemption" .scont Binyamin covers the streets of Nahalat Binyamin, Kalisher, Mohilever and adjacent streets. The source of the name, it is said, was debated: the founders of the association applied for a loan for their bodies. They said that if the JNF accepted their request, they would say that the neighborhood is named after Binyamin Ze'ev Herzl. If the Baron Rothschild answered yes, they would say that the neighborhood is named after Benjamin Edmond de Rothschild. In any case, they called the neighborhood Nahalat Binyamin. There were 35 lots in the neighborhood that were distributed in the lottery. The Nahalat Binyamin Association, as well as the Association of the Others, had a book of regulations that required the members to build the houses in "taste and beauty" and according to the standards of modern construction in Europe. The houses on the street were built according to the building regulations - on both sides of the main street and at regular intervals of 4 meters. The courtyards are surrounded by identical fences, made of wood and not stone, due to the economic situation of the founders of Nahalat Binyamin. The main street - Nahalat Binyamin Street (which was the longest in Tel Aviv, from Rothschild Boulevard in the south and ended north of Gruzenberg Street) was designed so that most of the houses in the neighborhood would be adjacent to it. The houses were mostly small, one-story buildings covered with tiled roofs, two rooms, a kitchen and a balcony, surrounded by gardens. Tziona Rabbo describes her parents' house in the street: "A line of cypresses led to the back entrance ... A number of steps in the bushes of night flowers led to a spacious terrace with a wooden banister ... Our kitchen was the height of luxury in those days ... A long corridor connected the dining room with the living room and other rooms ... Two erect poplars planted on either side of the porch ... Father, who so longed to build a house in our country, is available to the famous gardener Mr. Tantzman of Sarona to plan the garden around our house. " ("History of Tel Aviv, Yaakov Shavit). The dependence of the Nahalat Binyamin neighborhood in the Tel Aviv Water Institute and its lack of funds to build an independent infrastructure motivated it to unite with the older neighborhood. Nahalat Binyamin accepted the Tel Aviv regulations, undertook to participate in expenses and to pay proportionately (12.5%) for public property such as the water plant, the public park (the boulevard), the passage on the railroad tracks, and more. (Minutes from the meetings, and letters on the subject can be found in the Tel Aviv Municipal Archives in the City Hall). In September 1912 - when there were twenty-five houses - the territory of Binyamin joined Tel Aviv, and the growth of the neighborhood was accelerated. In the first years after World War I, the gardens in front of the houses were dismantled, shops and workshops were opened on the ground floors, and Nahalat Binyamin Street became the city's main commercial street. The street, long and straight, was suitable for ceremonies and events (such as the cricket walk, which attracted a large audience). But over time, changes took place in the street and it lost its uniformity and the size of the houses that originally ruled. Every house and its architect. Thus, an oriental style was incorporated here, under construction; there were domes, jagged columns, fortress-like; and, most important, decorations. Ceramics and jars, stone decorations and various building styles.

The beginning of architecture in Tel Aviv

Until about 1925, the city's single-family house and even apartment buildings for rent were not more than two stories high. From 1925 the houses were built three stories high, at least six apartments per house, and the density increased. Nachlat Binyamin Street (as well as Herzl Street and later Allenby Street) became commercial streets. The gardens in front of the houses were uprooted, trees were cut down and Tel Aviv was given a more "urban" character. As already noted, Tel Aviv neighborhoods were built according to the purchase of land, and each area was designed in and of itself without a comprehensive plan. Tel Aviv in the 1920s and early 1930s was a unique blend of suburban residential neighborhoods and a city. Commercial streets only did not exist, and even in the streets of Nahalat Binyamin, Herzl and Allenby, most of the lower floors were used for commerce. The Jews of Russia and Poland, who were the majority of the new settlement, did not bring their own architectural traditions with them from their country of origin. The very establishment of Ahuzat Bayit outside the boundaries of the city of Jaffa necessitated a different approach. Everything had to be done again. In the new neighborhoods, unlike the old neighborhoods in which the general plan was essentially Mizrahi, the general plan in the new neighborhood was European. Usually they were satisfied with an Arab contractor-contractor. There were those who deliberated about form and style, but had no tradition, like the Germans, for example, who built their colonies as in their homeland (Wirtenberg). In addition, there were no high-level Jewish architects in Israel. The Jewish neighborhoods of Jerusalem outside the walls and hospitals at the end of the 19th century were planned by German architects who were invited to the site for the construction of churches and so forth. Two German architects, who came to Israel to build the German Empire in Jerusalem, were also appointed to design Tel Aviv. The homes of Tel Aviv in its early days can therefore be divided into houses built in Arabic-Jaffa style with any teeth, with the usual materials in Jaffa - plastered sandstone and no cement blocks, which were already manufactured by the pioneer of the construction industry in Eretz Israel - Arber; The other sex included houses designed by an engineer or architect, even without adequate training and education. These houses were not usually a naive and provincial version of some European example. In the years when Tel Aviv was founded, the Bezalel School was established in Jerusalem. Prof. Schatz, his founder and director, argued that original Jewish art must be based on Eastern art. The Bezalel building in Jerusalem was an example. His approach had some effect, albeit limited. In the Tel Aviv buildings you can see the same eclecticism that sees decoration as a style preached by Prof. Schatz

The town houses in the 1920s

The idea of preserving part of Nahalat Binyamin Street was raised in the mid-1960s. But the idea was shelved. With the increasing awareness of the preservation of historical buildings, in which this street is particularly outstanding, in 1985 they realized the idea of preserving Nahalat Binyamin Street - between Magen David Square and Gruzenberg Street. This section contains buildings of historical-architectural importance from the 1920s and 1930s, most of which were relatively well preserved and worthy of restoration and preservation. The pedestrian mall opened to the public in March 1987. Today it is a paved street suitable for pedestrians, which only opens at certain times to vehicles for unloading and loading

Conservation of Nahalat Binyamin Street

Until the mid-1920s, the city was dominated by a one-story and two-story house. In architecture, the same situation continued as the first years of Tel Aviv, a night of styles. In fact, it is impossible to talk about the style of the houses of Tel Aviv during this period. In most cases, they did not have anything but decorations on a structure that had nothing to do with it. It was, in fact, a continuation of a rather low level of the same eclecticism that ruled Europe in the 19th century but in the 1920s it already belonged to the past. We find houses in Oriental Renaissance garb in the style of "Bezalel" (or other), which can be attributed to the style of the beginning of the century, called "Yogand Shtil." This style, which was inherently ornate, was revealed in various forms and at different levels in many of the buildings of the period. Architecture in Tel Aviv was a hybrid: Arab-local construction with attempts to decorate the houses with decorations borrowed from different styles, European and Oriental

3

A tour in the street

The first half of the ministerial years began with the period of "construction dreams" in Tel Aviv, which was influenced, inter alia, by the school of construction championed by Boris Schatz. Schatz's philosophy was based on modern oriental style and the revival of ancient Hebrew motifs in architecture and the integration of Bezalel ceramic tiles in the facades of the houses. House number 1 - the Polistok family house, a building with a round façade where "elephant shoes" were known. A nostalgic building for all those among us whose parents bought them shoes there. The enlistment office for the British army was also housed in this building. House 8 - also known as the "House of the Palm," was built by architect YZ. Tabachnik for Hillel Hacohen in 1922. Tabachnik adopted the style of the "Jugendstil" (the German stream of Art Nouveau style and this building is perhaps the most complete example of style). The building is full of Bezalel-style motifs according to the teachings of Boris Schatz. A Star of David, a seven-branched candelabra and many oriental decorations, reminiscent of the horns of the altar. This building is known as the "palm house" on the palm tree that runs in front of the house from the window on the second and third floors. The trunk passes through the center of the windows while the top is stained glass in the upper window. At the top of the house, in the center, the owner left several rows of terraced, unpainted brick, in accordance with Jewish tradition, as a reminder of the destruction of the Temple. On the balustrades of the terraced porches, bars in the shape of the seven-branched candelabrum. In the original planning of the house, Tabachnik asked for the tablets to be incorporated in the upper part of the house, but the municipal technical committee rejected his request and threatened to disqualify the plan entirely on the grounds that religious motifs should not be included in a building other than a synagogue. House 13 - Built by Shmuel Levy, a Bulgarian-born Jew. (It's worth looking at him from across the street to see him overall). The house was built in 1926, and ceramic panels were probably embedded in it, one of the connections with the Bezalel School of Art in Jerusalem, and express the search for "Hebrew elements" in the 1920s. On the sides of the central tile are additional ceramic tiles, symmetrically placed. They describe a guest of camels and donkeys. On the upper floor, on both sides of the facade, pictures of a "shepherd" with oriental ornamentation as a secondary decoration. On the corner of Rambam Street, there are two monumental houses: Beit Ha'amudim - designed by Yehuda Magidovich and Beit Hakadim - the first house designed by Ze'ev Rechter in Tel Aviv, and Beit Beit HaKadim, built in 1925 and designed by architect Magidovitch. The building is also known as the "House of Vases", due to the Greek style jars placed above its first floor, with a rounded porch in the corner of the house, which ends in a column railing. House No. 12-16 - Zalman Noah House, "The Pillars House" was designed by the architect Yehuda Magidovich. This is a large building that stretches from Rambam Street to Tavor Street and stretches over an area of ​​about 2 dunams, built in neo-classical style and is characterized by arches and columns, hence the nickname "Beit Haamudim." It was built in the 1920s as a rental house Baron, a US immigrant who had purchased the area for £ 209. Got rich from the compensation he received from Ford for his injury in a car accident. The old Hadassah Hospital began its activities in the events of 1921. Initially it was intended to house the Spector hostel from Jaffa, but the urgent need for a hospital dictated the new purpose of the building. Only a few years later, the Hadassah Hospital building was built on Balfour Street. After the hospital was transferred to Balfour Street, the building served as the apothecary bank. It is part of a triangular structure, between Nahalat Binyamin, Mohaliver and Shapar Streets, House 27, corner of Gruzenberg 32, Nordau Hotel, designed by Yehuda Magidovich for M. Dichter, with a tower and a dome with silver tiles. The hotel was famous for its roof, and next to the Allenby Street is the Ophir cinema, the second movie theater in Tel Aviv. Allenby and Grozenberg - Nahalat Binyamin pedestrian mall which turns on Tuesdays and Fridays from morning until dark to a colorful and colorful bazaar of art is invited to continue A little further on to be impressed by a few more foundation stones and special homes from the beginning of Tel Aviv: Avraham Krinitzi's house - a two-story house (Nahalat Binyamin - Montefiore corner) The Palatin Hotel - corner of Ahad Ha'am and Nahalat Binyamin streets. Architect Bravald (the builder of the Technion and the Reali School in Haifa) tried to create a special style based on Islamic architecture, which differs from the custom until the mid-1920s. The building has arched windows, balconies and lighting windows. At the Palatine Hotel there were concerts of the Philharmonic Orchestra and drawing exhibitions. There were also high officials of British rule. Nahalat Binyamin, corner of Rothschild Blvd. The first well, with the establishment of Ahuzat Bayit, the nucleus of Tel Aviv, it was necessary to provide water for the neighborhood. A public area was allocated for digging a well, which was dug to a depth of 25 m, and a pump was installed with a 4 kW kerosene engine with a pumping capacity of 15 MCM per hour. Above the well was a building that was used by the neighborhood committee and its institutions. When the neighborhood was turned into a city, the municipality offices were housed in a different location, and the building served the police, MDA and the fire department - until the end of the British Mandate

photo-home-3-Baner

All Rights Reserved to Artisan association of Nachalat Binyamin pedestrian mall ©

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